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Very Hot Topic (More than 25 Replies) Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire? (Read 15621 times)
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Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Nov 26th, 2015 at 4:41am
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I've just completed some fascinating reading regarding the current state of CIT research. As most have probably gathered, I'm not entrenched on either side; I find the debate intellectually stimulating in many dimensions. My impression of the polygraph's history reveals a chasm between the scientists and the practitioners over the years; the latter being more from a law enforcement / legal genre of professionals. The major beef with the polygraph is the inadequacies of the CQT. While practitioners point to criterion validity, scholars note the lack of construct validity as well as the biased feedback from the field. This is the root of the "pseudoscience" tag.

In walks the CIT (or GKT out of respect to Lykken). Current research lends support to both criterion and construct validity (Sokolov's Orienting Reflex), as well as being unbiased towards the innocent in contrast the to CQT.

So, my question is thus:

Does the CIT potentially steal the fire from the antipolygraph camp? Or are they split; some accepting the CIT as a viable approach to PDD (or more appropriately Memory Detection) and others who are totally against any kind of external intrusion into the private domain of the mind.

Comments?

« Last Edit: Nov 26th, 2015 at 7:00am by Ex Member »  
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Paste Member Name in Quick Reply Box Dan Mangan
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #1 - Nov 26th, 2015 at 2:46pm
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Ark, a concern I have with the CIT/GKT is that a test subject could harbor sensitivity to the key item that is entirely unrelated to either concealed information or guilty knowledge.

Let's say a homicide was committed with a gun that fired a .357 magnum round, and, in the ensuing investigation, a CIT/GKT exam was given to suspects to establish a link to the caliber of firearm used.

In such a test, ".357 magnum" or "357" would be the key item, obviously.

Now, if a polygraph test subject had a memorable association with that type of firearm -- for example, the person once fired a short-barreled .357 revolver at night with no hearing protection, leaving him temporarily blinded form the muzzle flash and his ears ringing for hours after that  -- then the mere mention of that caliber could evoke that memory and thus produce tracings that suggest an arousal to that item.

It's easy to think of other such examples. My point is that there can be alternative explanations to responses to the key item in a CIT/GKT "test" that are neither concealed information nor guilty knowledge.

As for the CQT, in my opinion, it's essentially "tooth fairy science."

Learn more here: http://ethicalnag.org/2009/10/26/tooth-fairy-science/
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #2 - Nov 26th, 2015 at 6:27pm
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Dan, Lykken did address this by having each test contain only one crime relevant key item, and running several tests with other crime relevant items. For example if 10 tests were run, each with a unique crime relevant item along with 4 controls, the chances of a person lacking guilty knowledge responding to all (or most) crime relevant items would statistically be less than 1%. Interestingly, way back in 1960, Lykken did a countermeasure study on the GKT and found that diagnostic information regarding guilty knowledge was none-the-less discernible.

In contrast to the POT where phasic responses take a back seat to tonic during analysis, the CIT is numerically scored with no Inconclusive available. Also, the POT uses only one key, whereas the CIT suggests many (accuracy increases proportionally).

Putting this all together creates a scenario whereby the examiner is woven into an investigative team to implement strategies to identify salient crime related keys and prevent them from leaking. I am not sure if the average examiner has the prowess (or gumption) and critical thinking skills to make the CIT effective.
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #3 - Nov 28th, 2015 at 6:09pm
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Ark,

You ask:

Quote:
...Does the CIT potentially steal the fire from the anti polygraph camp?...


Because CIT examinations will never be used/cannot be used for general polygraph screening examinations (by definition these are fishing expeditions without the developed information necessary to conduct a CIT exam), there will always exist the opportunity for the foolish to apply commonly utilized lie detection formats in that arena--so, if you mean by "stealing the fire," eliminating the possibility of meaningful critique and criticism, the answer is no.

And by the way, as I am sure you are aware, because CIT exams are not employed to detect deception, as a matter of simple nomenclature, they would never by categorized as a type of PDD.

Dan,

A proper review of CIT items with an examinee, in advance of the examination, will afford that examinee an opportunity to advise of the kind of non-relevant item salience that you asked about with your example of a .357.  The alleged salience can be investigated, and if found to be plausible, the item can be eliminated, the exam thereby modified, and then subsequently conducted.

I hope that you will continue to think about and explore the CIT, and whether you are successful or not with your desire for leadership within the APA, I hope that you will continually promote  CIT utilization as a worthy seminar topic.
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #4 - Feb 13th, 2016 at 8:35am
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Drew Richardson wrote on Nov 28th, 2015 at 6:09pm:
Because CIT examinations will never be used/cannot be used for general polygraph screening examinations (by definition these are fishing expeditions without the developed information necessary to conduct a CIT exam), there will always exist the opportunity for the foolish to apply commonly utilized lie detection formats in that arena--so, if you mean by "stealing the fire," eliminating the possibility of meaningful critique and criticism, the answer is no.


Doc,
While pondering the idea if an OR could somehow be utilized in screening, I came up empty every time. Then, while reading a book from a noted Lithuanian polygraph examiner Vitas Saldžiūnas, I was surprised to see where he affirms he and his colleague developed what they call an Event Knowledge Test (EKT). They even called it an "improvement" over the CIT. I gather that it has its roots in the KGB counterpart of the old DODpi. It strikes me as having elements of both a CIT and an RI.

I noted that he and his colleague authored the attached article in the 2012 APA journal. Are you familiar with this proffered EKT? Intuitively I want to ask to see the studies as well as an explanation of its construct validity. But, I am humbled by his credentials.

His book is written with his own ESL skills and reads as such. But, if only I could do so well in Lithuanian. Here's the book:

http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3659741922?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_deta...
« Last Edit: Feb 14th, 2016 at 5:05pm by Ex Member »  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #5 - Feb 13th, 2016 at 6:46pm
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Ark,

Have been paragliding in Colombia the last couple of weeks, but once things settle down (no pun intended), I will look forward to exploring the EKT...

https://youtu.be/eb2IqTKubyA
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #6 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 12:13pm
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Ark,

How do I get to the attachment you refer to?  Amazon's book offering will not be practical in the short term...

So, obviously I have not yet read the work you refer to and am not familiar with the event knowledge test, so I can't comment upon the specifics of the notion or the details of the article.  That having been said...

An RI lie detection test is the lowest of the low in the world of lie detection and combining it with a CIT would likely not improve the RI but altogether ruin a CIT exam.

Going back to my previous statement about CIT exams not being applicable to screening, I need to offer a differentiation and an explanation. 

A CIT is most definitely not useful in a typical screening test, e.g., applicant testing/employee reinvestigation/sex offender testing types of screening exams because all of the preceding are merely fishing expeditions with no developed information available from which to probe examinee memories.

There does exist a different and a general screening exam in which one screens a pool of individuals/potential examinees (or even one individual) to see who in that pool has  association with some specific group of interest (Mafia, Al Qaeda, etc) or who possesses some specialized knowledge or skill set (e.g., bomb maker, medical training, etc). 

This latter type of testing is clearly a viable use of a CIT for a generalized (group association) type of screening, but, as always, depends upon the development of relevant privileged information. This might well involve the use of  confidential sources, informants, etc. with terrorist or organized crime related exams. Examples of useful information that might be obtained are training methods, locations, occupants (specific names and demographics of) in the hierarchy of some group, etc.

My colleague, Dr. Larry Farwell, and I have demonstrated the viability of this latter type of testing several times over the last couple of decades, e.g.,

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnins.2014.00410/abstract
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #7 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 4:54pm
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Doc,
The attachment is there at the bottom of my previous post. Click on the Icon just below the book link.

Alternatively, you can get the article from the APA website here:

http://www.polygraph.org/assets/docs/APA-Journal.Articles/2012/polygraph_in_lith...
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #8 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 5:32pm
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Ark,

Thank you for getting me to the article you referenced. 

I'm sorry, but without spending additional and considerably more time than I am prepared to devote to tracking down and reading additional foundational articles (i.e., Saldžiūnas & Kovalaenka, 2008a,b,c, 2009a,b,c,d, 2010, 2011) referenced in that paper, I will not have any fully developed opinions about the EKT.

But again, anything that commingles lie detection and CIT exams would be of no interest to me and likely of no value to anyone.
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #9 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 6:20pm
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Alright Doc, I know that expert opinions cannot be made spontaneously. These articles he refers to are in the European Polygraph Journals which are harder to find documents.

I do find these methods counterintuitive and seem to conflict with the techniques elaborated in this country. I was not aware that parallel polygraph efforts had been occurring in the former East Block countries.

In reading his book, he and his colleagues have a lot of sway with the Lithuanian courts who have accepted his EKT as evidence in criminal cases.

If Raymond or anyone else has some comments on this method, I'd like to hear it. My thoughts are focused on some alternative to the CQT, an alternative which may have construct validity. But, that may be grandiose and sophomoric of me as I do not have formal training in Psychology.
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #10 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 7:11pm
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Ark, where did you go to polygraph school?
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #11 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 7:22pm
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Dan, I never attended a polygraph school. I am an engineer by trade.
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #12 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 8:03pm
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I doubt that an engineer of virtually any stripe would have much faith in the "test."
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #13 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 8:05pm
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I am indeed still on the fence.
  
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Re: Does the CIT steal the Antipolygraph Community's Fire?
Reply #14 - Feb 14th, 2016 at 8:19pm
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What would it take to make you a believer? Evidently more than the APA's own research...
  
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